Operating Web Class 12 Notes | Web Application Class 12 IT 802

Well Organized Operating Web Class 12 Notes specially designed for students learning Class 12 IT 802 Operating Web Application covering all topics such as web based applications, online reservation system, online shopping, online courses, project management and phases in web application project. This Operating Web Class 12 Notes is designed keeping CBSE suggested syllabus in mind.

Web based applications

Applications that can be accessed over a computer network or internet using web browser is called web based applications.

Examples of web based applications

  • Online reservation system
  • Online shopping and bill payments
  • Online tutorials
  • E governance

Online reservation system

Online reservation system refers to booking/cancellation of tickets through Internet. A user can retrieve information and transaction related to reservation of ticket.

Examples of Online Reservation System

  • Airline ticket
  • Railway ticket
  • Bus ticket
  • Movie ticket
  • Hotel booking
  • Car rental
  • Tour and travel booking

Advantages of Online Reservation System for consumers

  • online booking allows the customer to check the prices, compare them and get the best deal.
  • The user/consumer can book tickets anytime anywhere – from home, office, while travelling, etc.
  • It is fast and secure
  • In online booking, users have choices to select seats, foods, seat arrangements.
  • Online reservation consumes very less time in contrast to long queues at the counter.
  • The users can avail the special discount schemes provided by the service provider like, season discount, advance booking discount and frequent user discount.

Advantages of Online Reservation System for providers

  • Less man-power is required as every task is done through computers.
  • The physical location of the office does not really matter to provide reservation services
  • Online reservation is available to anyone irrespective of their physical location.
  • Anyone who can access to the Internet can avail online reservation services from anywhere globally

Precautions while performing online transactions

  • Make a password complex, like mix case, use numbers and special characters.
  • Be cautious not to leave passwords around and do not share them with friends.
  • Never use names of near and dear ones as passwords.


  • E-Governance or electronic governance refers to the use of information and communication technology tools for governance by the government for the citizens.
  • The objective of E-governance is to bring transparency in the entire system, and providing quality information and services to citizens.
  • E-Governance services can be broadly classified in two categories:
    • Provide Online Services
    • Provide Online Information

E-Governance Initiatives

  • National e-Government Plan (NeGP)
  • National e-Governance Division (NeGD)
  • e-Governance Infrastructure
  • Citizens Services
  • Business Services
  • Government Services
  • Projects and Initiatives
  • R&D in e-Governance

E-Governance Sites

  • India.gov.in
  • Goidirectory.nic.in
  • uidai.gov.in
  • digitalindia.gov.in
  • mygov.in

Online Shopping

Online shopping is an e-commerce application where the customer can purchase goods over the Internet.

Benefits of Online Shopping

Online shopping is beneficial for

  • The customer does not have enough time to visit a store and purchase goods
  • The store where you will get what you need may be very far off.
  • The money spent in travelling to the store, parking the car, etc., is much more than overhead if any in online shopping.
  • The product you may require is not available at your market.
  • You save your time and energy for delivery of the product to someone at somewhere else.

Bill Payments

Online Bill Payment can be done by

  • Debit card
  • Credit card
  • Net banking
  • Wire Transfer
  • UPI Apps like Phonepe, Paytm etc.

Online Courses

Online courses and tutorials help the user in learning like using software, video game, or a lesson. In online tutoring, the students and the teachers are at physically different locations, connected to each other via Internet.

Benefits of Online Courses

  • Learner has freedom to learn at their convenient location
  • Learner has freedom to learn at convenient time
  • Learner has freedom to learn at their own pace of leaning
  • There is no discrimination of age, caste, gender, background, or the qualification of the learner.
  • The tutorials may be enriched with audio and video information, which makes learning more enjoyable and attractive.
  • Tutorials and tests are available for almost all topics, sometimes in regional languages also.

Online Educational websites

  • khanacademy.org
  • eagetutor.com
  • udacity.org
  • courser.org
  • edx.org
  • w3schools.com
  • ncert.nic.in

Project Management

  • Project Management is the process of achieving the objectives of the project through a set of activities defined within the time frame, to produce the end result. It is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.
  • Project is a task that is undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.

Characteristics of Project

  • A project has a beginning and an end. The extent of the project is defined.
  • A project requires finite resources that are required to complete the project.
  • A project has a specific time frame. It has a definite beginning and end dates.
  • A project is complete when its end objectives are achieved. The objective is specific and identifiable.

Web based application development

Web based application development involves the process of developing web applications. A web application is a program that is stored on a remote server. It is online and is delivered over the Internet through a web browser interface. A web application may be of different kinds, like, a quiz, a game, or a bill calculator.

Phases in a Web Application Project

Following are the four main phases of web application project

  1. Requirements Definition Phase
  2. Design Phase
  3. Implementation Phase
  4. Testing Phase

Requirement Definition Phase

  • In this phase we identify the problem statement for which the web application is to be developed.
  • Identify the scope of the problem.
  • Check whether the project is technically, economically feasible.

Design Phase

  • In this phase the focus is on ‘how’ the application is to be designed.
  • Design of application consists of database structure, page structure and relationship between pages.

Implement phase

  • This phase focuses on creating frontend, backend of application and connectivity between them.

Testing phase

  • As it name implies, it test the complete application with multiple sample of data set.
  • Fix bugs and error of application and ensures that application is valid and ready to release.

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