Web Applications and Security Class 10 Notes | Unit-4 IT Class 10

Get Latest Web Applications and Security Class 10 Notes and pdf covering Accessibility Options, Networking Fundamentals, Instant Messaging, Google Talk, Blog, Internet Security, Workplace Safety and Health Safety. All the topics in Web Applications and Security Class 10 Notes Notes are well organized and prepared very concisely in easy language by experts to ensure sure shot success of students.

SESSION 1: Working with accessibility options

What is Computer Accessibility?

Computer Accessibility refers to accessing and using both hardware and software resources of computer system easily and conveniently by everyone regardless of their disability or impairment.

What is Assistive Technology?

Combining hardware and software in such a way that anyone with disability or impairment can use computer easily and conveniently.

Types of Impairment

Cognitive Impairment and Learning disabilities: it refers to disability of remembering, learning and taking decisions such as dyslexia, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism.

Visual Impairment: it refers to low vision that can be corrected to normal vision, complete or partial blindness and color blindness.

Hearing Impairment: it refers to disability in hearing whether permanent or fluctuating.

Motor or Dexterity Impairment: it refers to partial or complete loss of body part movement such as paralysis, cerebral palsy, or carpel tunnel syndrome and repetitive strain injury.

Launching Accessibility Options

Click start → Control Panel → Easy of Access → Easy of Access Center

Keyboard Tab (How to use Keyboard)

Sticky Keys

  • Sticky keys is an accessible feature that makes modifier keys such as Shift, Ctrl, Alt or Window key to remain active until any other key is pressed.
  • Sticky Keys help users with physical disabilities to reduce repetitive strain as they need not to press multiple keys together at same time.

 How to enable Sticky Keys?

  1. Click start → Control Panel → Easy of Access → Easy of Access Center
  2. Select ‘Make the keyboard easier to use’
  3. Check ‘Turn On Sticky Keys’ check box
  4. Click on Apply → OK

To disable Sticky key uncheck ‘Turn on Sticky Keys’ and Click Apply → OK.

Filter Keys

  • Filter key is an accessible feature that restricts repeated keystrokes in order to make typing easier.
  • Filter keys help user with disabilities like hand tremors

How to enable Filter Keys?

  1. Click start → Control Panel → Easy of Access → Easy of Access Center
  2. Select ‘Make the keyboard easier to use’
  3. Check ‘Turn On Filter Keys’ check box
  4. Click on Setup Filter Keys
  5. Ensure that Turn on Repeat keys and Slow key is selected
  6. Click on Apply → OK

Toggle Keys

  • Toggle keys is an accessible feature that emits each time you press locking keys such as Caps Lock, Scroll Lock, Insert, Num Lock.
  • Toggle keys help user with disabilities like vision impairment or cognitive impairment.

How to enable Toggle Keys

  1. Click start → Control Panel → Easy of Access → Easy of Access Center
  2. Select ‘Make the keyboard easier to use’
  3. Check ‘Turn On Toggle Keys’ check box
  4. Click on Apply → OK

Sound Sentry

  • Sound Sentry is designed to help users with hearing impairments.
  • Sound Sentry generates visual warnings, such as a blinking title bar or a flashing border, whenever the computer generates a sound.

How to enable Sound Sentry?

  1. Click start → Control Panel → Easy of Access → Easy of Access Center
  2. Select ‘Use text or visual alternatives for sounds’
  3. Check ‘Turn on visual notification for sounds (Sound Sentry)’ check box
  4. Click on Apply → OK


  • ShowSound is accessibility feature that instruct application uses sound to present information, to also provide information visually like text captions or informative icons.
  • ShowSound is designed to help users with hearing impairments.

How to enable ShowSound?

  1. Click start → Control Panel → Easy of Access → Easy of Access Center
  2. Select ‘Use text or visual alternatives for sounds’
  3. Check ‘Turn on caption for spoken dialog (when available)’ check box
  4. Click on Apply → OK

High Contrast

  • High Contrast is an accessibility feature to assist people with vision impairment.
  • You can change the size and color of fonts and the background for ease of viewing.

How to enable High Contrast?

  1. Click start → Control Panel → Easy of Access → Easy of Access Center
  2. Select ‘Make the computer easier to see’
  3. Check ‘Turn on or off High Contrast’ check box
  4. Click on Apply → OK

To disable High Contrast uncheck Turn on or off High Contrast check box

Cursor Options

Cursor Options is also an accessibility feature that assists people with vision impairment by changing the blink rate and width of the cursor.

How to change width of the cursor?

  1. Click start → Control Panel → Easy of Access → Easy of Access Center
  2. Select ‘Make the computer easier to see’
  3. ‘Set the thickness of the blinking cursor’ from drop down list under ‘Make things on the scree easier to see’
  4. Click on Apply → OK

How to change blink rate of the cursor?

  1. Click start → Control Panel → Easy of Access → Easy of Access Center
  2. Select ‘Make the keyboard easier to use’
  3. Click Keyboard Setting
  4. Under ‘Cursor blink rate’ move the slider back or forth to increase or decrease rate
  5. Click on Apply → OK
  6. Click on OK

Mouse Tab (How to use Mouse)

Mouse Keys

  • Mouse Keys is an accessible feature that enables a keyboard as a pointing device instead of mouse.
  • Mouse Keys uses numeric keypad of keyboard as pointing device.
  • In Numeric Pad, Number key 4 is used to move left, 6 to move right, 2 to move down and 8 to move up.

How to enable Mouse Keys?

  1. Click start → Control Panel → Easy of Access → Easy of Access Center
  2. Select ‘Make the keyboard easier to use’
  3. Check ‘Turn On Mouse Keys’ checkbox
  4. Click on Apply → OK

To disable Mouse Keys uncheck ‘Turn on Mouse Keys’ option.

Serial Keys

Serial Keys is an accessibility feature that assists people that have difficulty using a keyboard or a mouse (or both). They can use special devices such as Sip, Puff and Breath Switches to provide input to the computer through Serial Ports.

SESSION 2: Networking fundamentals

What is Computer Network?

“A computer Network is group of connected devices such as Computer, Laptop, Printers, and Scanners, Mobiles devices, which can communicate with each other and share hardware and software resources.”

Advantages of Computer Network

  • Hardware Resources sharing: Printer, Scanner, Photocopier, CD Drive etc.
  • Software Resources Sharing: ERPs Open Source Software etc.
  • Information Sharing: File sharing like documents, sheets, reports etc.
  • Increase Storage Capacity: Usually Server of Computer Network have large storage capacity. Total Storage capacity of each node of Computer Network also increases storage capacity.
  • Cost Efficient: Computer Networks are cost effective as we can share one resource to many.
  • Collective User Interaction (Multi User Environment) : Computer Network allows many user to work together simultaneously in a project and as a result a lot of time and effort is saved.

Network architecture

Networks are designed using the following architecture

  • Peer to Peer (P2P) Architecture
  • Client Server Architecture

Peer to Peer Architecture

Networks in which all computers have an equal status are called peer to peer networks. Generally in such a network each terminal has an equally competent CPU

Client Server Architecture

Networks in which certain computers have special dedicated tasks, providing services to other computers (in the network) are called client server networks. The computer(s) which provide services are called servers and the ones that use these services are called clients.

Types of Network

  • Local Area Network
  • Metropolitan Area Network
  • Wide Area Network
  • Personal Area Network

Local Area Network

  • A Local Area Network is a collection of interconnected Computers and its associated devices that are located in a close proximity.
  • LAN Occupies small area not more than 1-5kms.
  • Speed of data transfer is high as compare to other networks.

Metropolitan Area Network

  • A Metropolitan Area Network is a collection of interconnected Computers and its associated devices that are located at one Geographic location such as multiple office building in a city.
  • MAN Occupies area between 5 to 50 kilometers.
  • It often acts as high speed network.
  • Examples- Municipal Offices network, Police Station network etc.

Wide Area Network

  • A Wide Area Network is a collection of interconnected Computers and its associated devices that are located at different Geographic location such as different cities, states or countries.
  • Comparatively low speed network to LAN and MAN.
  • Examples- National Banks, Railways, INTERNET etc.

Personal Area Network

  • A Personal Area Network is collection of various interconnected devices such as computers, mobile devices, fax machines and printers available closely to an individual user.
  • Mostly it uses Wi-Fi connectivity.
  • Usually operated or owned by individuals.
  • It covers distance of maximum 10-30mtr.


Internet is independent global network system of countless computers and electronic devices scattered around the globe connected to each other wirelessly or wirely with the help of various devices such as satellite, routers, wires and modems, for sharing information and communicating with each other.


World Wide Web popularly called ‘Web’ is a leading information sharing service of the Internet, which was developed by Tim Berners Lee in 1989 to give user access to wide range of documents that are connected to each other by hyperlink and written in HTML.

  • Content of HTML documents can be any text, graphics, audio or video.
  • Every HTML Document is can be accessed by its unique address known as URL
  • To read HTML Documents Web Browser is used.

What is Web Browser?

A Web Browser is software used to view Web sites and acts as an interface between the user and the World Wide Web.

What is Web Server?

A Web server is a computer that stores web sites and their related files for viewing on the Internet.

Internet Service Provider

  • An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization which provides you with access to the Internet via a dial-up (using modem) or direct (hard wired) or wireless connection.
  • There are different types of internet connectivity technology such DSL, cable modem, dial-up, broadband wireless, WiMAX or 172 3G offered by ISPs.

Types of Internet connectivity

TechnologyType of connectivity
Cable Internet AccessWired


  • Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) to establish a connection to an Internet service provider (ISP) via telephone lines using a device called MODEM.
  • Users dial a particular number provided by the ISP and gain access to the Internet.
  • Dial-up connections are extremely slow and in most cases, it is replaced by a high speed connection such as DSL or Cable Modem.


  • Digital subscriber line(DSL) provide Internet access by transmitting digital data over wires of a local telephone network.
  • DSL service is delivered along with wired telephone service on the same telephone line.
  • For using a DSL connection, you need a DSL modem and a subscription.

Cable Internet Access:

  • Cable Internet Access is a form of broadband Internet access that uses the cable television infrastructure.
  • Cable Internet Access is provided through existing cable TV networks.


  • 3G, short for 3rd Generation is a set of standards used for mobile devices and mobile telecommunication services and networks.
  • High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is 3G mobile telephony communications protocol that allows higher data transfer speeds and capacity.


  • WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a wireless communications standard designed to provide mobile broadband connectivity across cities and countries through a variety of devices.
  • WiMAX is a long range system, covering many kilometres and is typically used where DSL or Cable Internet Access cannot be used;


  • Wi-Fi is a popular technology that allows an electronic device such as computers or mobile phones to exchange data wirelessly over a network, including high-speed Internet connections.
  • WiFi devices such as personal computer, smartphones, video game console, etc. can connect to a network resource such as Internet through a device called the Wireless Access Point (WAP).
  • Wi-Fi connectivity is used in home & offices, hotels, college & school campus typically for Internet Access.


  • Modem refers to MOdulator DEModulator.
  • It converts Internet Signals (Analog) into digital signals (computer signals) and vice versa.
  • To connect with Internet Modem plays the most important role.

SESSION 3: Introduction to Instant Messaging

What is Instant Messaging?

  • Instant messaging (IM) is a form of communication over the Internet that offers an instantaneous transmission of text-based messages from sender to receiver.
  • Most instant messaging software include the option for performing file transfers, audio chat, video calling and conferencing, sharing desktops, etc.
  • apart from standard text chat. Instant messaging software is widely used for personal and commercial use.

Features of Instant Messaging

  • Text Messages can be sent to one or more person (Similar to SMS)
  • Audio calling and conferencing.
  • Video calling and conferencing.
  • File transfers (Not limited to documents, spread sheets, audio files, video files, etc.)
  • Message history (Save messages for future reference).

Instant Messaging Services

Application Based:

  • Yahoo messenger
  • Window live messenger
  • Skype
  • Google Talk
  • Rediff Bol

Web Based

  • Meebo
  • MSN web Messenger
  • Imo
  • Yahoo Web Messenger

Difference between Instant Messaging and Email

Instant messagingEmail
Recipients must be online to receive message.Recipients may not be online when the message is sent or received
Instant Messaging requires the users to use the same applicationEmail does not require to use same email service application
In Instant Messaging, recipient can view message instantly when deliveredIn Emails, receiver can view message at a later time.

What is Google Talk

  • Google Talk is an instant messaging service that provides both text and audio communication.
  • It is available in form of both application based and web based.
  • It is free to use and developed by Google Inc.
  • To use Google Talk one must require Gmail account.

SESSION 4: Chatting with a Contact in Google Talk

Etiquettes to be followed while Chatting

  • Messages should be short and to the point.
  • Always introduce yourself by name if your screen name doesn’t reflect it.
  • Always ask if the other person has time to chat first regardless of how important chat could be
  • Matter of discussion or topic of chat should be well known.
  • Avoid typing in capitals as it indicates aggressiveness or rudeness.
  • Wait for the response from other side.
  • respect to whom we are chatting by paying attention
  • It’s important to properly end an IM conversation

Chatting on GMail

  • Gmail also facilitate chatting services. The same procedure will be followed while making voice chats, text chats etc. using the Gmail.

How to do chatting in Gmail? (steps to chat using Gmail)

  • Sign in to gmail and go to contact window displayed on the either side of browser.
  • Double click on the contact name from contact list to whom to chat.
  • One popup will appear where you can start typing message to send and receive from other side.

Chatting on Yahoo

  • To chat with Yahoo we need to install Yahoo messenger application.
  • To chat in Yahoo! We should have yahoo mail account

How to chat in Yahoo?

  • Prepare contact list by adding yahoo mail accounts of others by sending them invitation.
  • Now sign in to Yahoo Messenger and click on smily displayed at top left side
  • A popup will be opened, click on pencil icon and a message window appears at bottom of popup
  • Select the contact and start chatting by typing message in message window.

SESSION 5: Creating and Publishing Web Pages

What is blog?

  • Blogs is similar to online personal diary in which someone can share information or their thoughts on a variety of topics.
  • Blog is an informational website, contains different posts or pages.
  • Blog presents all posts in reverse chronological order.
  • Blogs can be run by an individual, group or organization.

What is blog post?

Blog post are individual web pages used to write articles on a regular time period and published on blog. Blog post content can include text, images, audio and videos.

Websites that offer blog services:

  • www.wordpress.com
  • www.blogger.com
  • www.blog.com
  • www.weebly.com
  • www.blogsome.com
  • www.wix.com
  • www.tumblr.com

How to create a blog account?

  • Open www.wordpress.com
  • The homepage of wordpress contains blog address, username, password, emails etc. fields.
  • First of all provide a unique address for your blog in blog address field
  • Now enter username, password, and email in their respective fields
  • Click on create blog and your blog will be ready to use.

How to create and publish post?

  • Open your blog dashboard by entering username, password in www.wordpress.com
  • From left panel click on ‘post’ and select ‘new’, A new window will be opened.
  • Here you first provide title of your post.
  • Type content below title box, you can type text, insert images, audio and videos as per your requirement.
  • After finalizing content click on ‘publish’ to publish your post to make it live for all.

What do you mean by publishing a post?

Publishing a post refers to creating new content for users and make it live and available for them in Internet.

SESSION 6: Using Offline Blog Editor

Purpose of offline blog editor

  • It lets you create post without Internet connectivity
  • Uploading images and videos become easier
  • Easy to publish blogs
  • Creating post takes less time
  • Easy to work with multiple blogs

Free Offline blogger

  • Qumana
  • Window Live Writer
  • Blogdesk
  • Blogjet
  • Post2blog

SESSION 7: Online Transactions

Online Transaction refers to transfer of money over the Internet.

Examples of Online transaction

  • Deposit or Withdraw money from an ATM machine
  • Payments using debit/credit card

Benefits of Online Transaction

  • Fast transaction speed
  • Convenient
  • Low risk of theft

List of popular online transaction websites

  • Flipcart
  • Amazon
  • EBay
  • SBI

Online transaction Tools

  • ATM
  • Debit card
  • Credit Card
  • NEFT
  • IMPS
  • UPI

SESSION 8: Internet Security

Internet security refers to security related to Internet. It involves Internet browsing security and computer network security. Its main objective is to establish rules and measures to protect your data, computer system, and computer network from malicious activities and attack over internet.

Best Practices for Internet Security

  • Use strong password
  • Use encryption software to protect your data from unauthorized users.
  • Never save your username, password on computers that are used in share environments.
  • Read privacy statement or policy carefully while registering with a website.
  • Be cautious when filling out forms asking for personal information. Research and verify the authenticity of website.
  • Use secure practices for performing and maintaining online transactions. Make sure that website is legitimate.
  • Use antivirus and antispyware to protect your system from different types of malwares.
  • Never respond to mails from unknown users.
  • Clear browser cookies frequently.
  • Keep the operating system and application softwares updated.
  • Install firewalls in your system
  • Never install software from unknown sources.

Tips to manage strong password

  • Keep the length of the password at least 12-14 characters if permitted.
  • Avoid keeping passwords based on repetition, dictionary words, letter or number sequences, usernames, relative or pet names, etc.
  • Including numbers, and symbols in passwords if allowed.
  • Use capital and lower-case letters.
  • Avoid using the same password for multiple sites or purposes.
  • Avoid using something that the public or workmates know you strongly like or dislike.

Clear browsing data and cookies

In Mozilla Firefox

  • Click ‘menu’ from top right corner
  • From drop down select ‘settings’.
  • now from the left pan select Privacy and Security.
  • Under ‘Cookies and Site Data’ click on ‘Clear data’ option
  • Check ‘cookies and site data’ and ‘cached web content’ option
  • Click on ‘clear’ button.

In Google Chrome

  • Click ‘menu’ from top right corner
  • From drop down select ‘settings’.
  • now from the left pan select Privacy and Security.
  • Under ‘Privacy and Security’ click on ‘Clear browsing data’ option
  • Check ‘browsing history’, ‘cookies and other site data’ and ‘cached image and files’ option
  • Click on ‘clear data’ button.

SESSION 9: Maintain Workplace Safety

There are some basic safety rules and procedures that every organization must follow. All the employees must also be trained to follow these safety rules.

Safety rules to follow at workplace:

  • Fire safety
  • Falls and slip
  • Electrical safety
  • Use of first aid

Basic Fire safety rules

  • Fire escape plans must be installed at proper levels
  • Conduct regular drills
  • Smoke alarms must be placed at proper intervals
  • Keep workplace a no-smoking zone
  • Maintenance of safety equipment must be taken care of regularly

Falls and slip safety rules

  • Keep the moving area clean and clutter free.
  • Workplace must be proper ventilated receive light.
  • Wear non slippery footwear.
  • Floors must be clean and dry
  • Oil spills, dust must be immediately cleaned.

Electrical safety rules

  • Electrical equipment used should be approved by a recognized organization.
  • Workers should be trained to handle the electric equipment safely
  • Damaged and hazardous electrical equipment should be immediately replaced. All old and workout and frayed switches and wires should be changed.
  • Heat emanating equipment should be kept away from the electrical equipment.
  • Take care that the outlets/ circuits should not be overloaded.
  • Switch off and unplug the electrical appliances before cleaning or relocating them.

Use of First Aid

  • First aid is the instant assistance provided to injured to save life and reduce health loss till the proper medical facility is provided.
  • Every human being must aware of First Aid use, as it may save life if provided effectively on time to injured.
  • Every organization must have basic First Aid Kit.

First Aid Rules

  • Assure the injured to remain calm and not to panic
  • Keep them warm if they are under shock
  • Do not move the victim in case of back/neck injury

What is occupational hazard?

An occupational hazard is the illness one may acquire due to his occupation. Like people working in a chemical factory may get affected due to presence of certain chemicals.

Types of occupational hazards are :

  • Physical hazards
  • Chemical hazards
  • Biological hazards
  • Behavioral hazards
  • Radiological hazards
  • Ergonomic hazards

SESSION 10: prevent accidents and emergencies

What do you mean by accident?

An unplanned event that may happen suddenly and may lead to unwanted and unprecedented results.

Types of Accidents

  • Slips and fall accidents
  • Fire – Industrial disease/illness
  • Road traffic accidents
  • Clinical Accidents
  • Sports related accidents

Handling Emergencies

  • Every organization must follow SOP for accident handling
  • Safety measures must be placed to prevent workplace accidents
  • Immediately call the medical team for any injury
  • Stay alert
  • Pay attention to and follow emergency drills


Any unexpected situation that needs immediate attention and action

Types of Emergency

  • Chemical spills
  • Extreme heat waves
  • Droughts
  • Pandemics
  • Terrorist attack
  • Fire
  • Floods
  • Thunderstorms
  • Leakage of some hazardous gas/ chemical

Emergencies that require evacuation

  • Fire
  • Explosion
  • Floods
  • Earthquake
  • Hurricane
  • Tornado
  • Toxic material release
  • Civil disturbance
  • Workplace violence

SESSION 11: Protect Health and Safety at Work

A hazard is anything that is the source of any potential harm, damage or any kind of potential loss of health or life.

Types of Hazard

  • Physical
  • Chemical
  • Biological
  • Mechanical

How to reduce hazard for workstations

  • Provide sufficient space for the user to alter position comfortably
  • Provide adequate lighting
  • Have windows fitted with adjustable coverings to alter the sunlight level
  • Be spacious enough when a workstation is shared by more than one person

How to reduce hazard for display screen

  • display well-defined characters of adequate size and spacing
  • have a stable image
  • have easily adjustable brightness and contrast
  • tilt and swivel easily to suit the user
  • be free from glare and reflections
  • Use a separate base for the screen or an adjustable table

How to reduce hazard for keyboard

  • be able to tilt easily and should be able to separate from the screen to allow the user to adopt a comfortable working position
  • have space in front to provide support for the hands or arms of the user
  • have a matt surface
  • have clearly legible symbols on the keys

how to reduce hazard at work surface

  • Provide adequate space for the user
  • have a low reflective surface
  • be of an adequate size to allow the screen, keyboard and other peripherals to be flexibly arranged
  • have a stable and adjustable document holder, which should be at the same level as the screen and at the same viewing distance

Workplace evacuation

  • Organization must have a designated assembly point for emergencies. Ensure that every employee/ worker must know where it is.
  • A ‘buddy system’ for individuals with special needs or disabilities must be designated. This system ensures that differently-abled are assisted and guided out of the premises or the impacted area properly.
  • If you are a buddy to someone, ensure that your buddy is safe at the assembly point with you.
  • Floor plans with evacuation routes in work areas. Ensure that you understand these so you can use it in time of need.
  • Assembly areas, where you are required to assemble after evacuation, must be properly taken care of.
  • Periodic evacuation drills should be conducted. Ensure that you pay attention during these drills. You need to save your life and you can be helpful in saving someone else’s life too.

3 thoughts on “Web Applications and Security Class 10 Notes | Unit-4 IT Class 10”

  1. Thanks you🙏…for such a great notes
    The notes are very very helpful..🥰👍..
    These notes are very understandable 😊..and makes the topic crystal clear..one can achieve best marks ‼️ after having these notes 😊😊

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